Urbanization has a huge effect on agriculture and rural areas, leading to a continuous loss of agricultural land both directly and indirectly. This article looks into the implications of these changes for the livelihoods of rural populations in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia, as well as the enabling environments needed to help rural communities benefit from the transformations. Enhancing agricultural eco-efficiency (EEE) is a promising way to achieve sustainable agricultural development. To this end, policy suggestions related to the transformation of the mode of agricultural development, the acceleration of the urbanization process, the improvement of professional education for the young and middle-aged rural workforce, and the expansion of channels to increase the income of rural residents were presented.
Agricultural employees and the net per capita income of rural residents were chosen as substitute variables for agricultural labor and the income of rural residents. The transfer of agricultural labor brought about by rapid urbanization has improved inputs for agricultural production and large-scale agricultural operations. Carbon emissions from agriculture and pollution caused by pesticides and agricultural plastic films were identified as main causes of the loss of ESA in Gansu. The decrease in the proportion of land used for agriculture in the vicinity of a city may be accompanied by more intensive production of land that remains dedicated to agriculture or by intensive urban agriculture on land not classified as agricultural.
To improve the overall quality of the agricultural labor force, local governments should create a special fund and establish a modern vocational education system to encourage young and middle-aged people returning to their homes to receive agricultural education and training. The multiple links between the countryside and the city mean that climate change impacts on agriculture will affect urban areas, while climate change impacts on urban areas will affect agriculture. In conclusion, improving EEE is a promising way to achieve sustainable agricultural development. To this end, policy suggestions related to the transformation of the mode of agricultural development, accelerating urbanization, improving professional education for rural youth and middle-aged workers, and expanding channels to increase rural incomes should be implemented.